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此情此景

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【转】帕累托与帕累托图  

2012-10-02 18:27:53|  分类: 信息系统项目管理 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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维弗雷多·帕累托Vilfredo Pareto 18487151923819),意大利经济学家。

帕累托于1906年在分析意大利社会经济结构时,发现80%的财富掌握在20%的人手里,该发现后来被约瑟夫·朱兰和其他人概括为帕累托法则(20/80法则),这种找问题关键原因的方法后来进一步概括为帕累托分析。帕累托认为,社会分层结构的存在是普遍和永恒的,但并不意味着社会上层成员和下层成员的社会地位是凝固不变的。 

  【转】帕累托与帕累托图 - 此情此景 - 此情此景 帕累托       【转】帕累托与帕累托图 - 此情此景 - 此情此景 20/80法则


帕累托图

1907年美国经济学家劳伦兹使用累积分配曲线描绘了帕累托法则,被称为“劳伦兹曲线”。1930年美国品管泰斗朱兰博士将劳伦兹曲线应用到质量管理上。

20世纪60年代,日本质量大师石川馨在推行自己发明的QCC(质量圈)时使用了排列图法(排列图是帕累托图的另一种叫法,它按引起质量事故次数的高低来排列事故原因,引起质量事故最多的事故原因排在第一位)。

帕累托图为质量管理七大传统工具之一,用来分析造成质量事故的主要原因,也可推广到社会生活的各个领域,例如在企业中通常认为80%的利润来自于20%的项目或重要客户;心理学家认为,20%的人身上集中了社会80%的智慧;在信息系统中,约80%的质量故障是由该系统中约20%的原因造成的。

因此避免将大量时间花在琐碎的多数次要问题上,因为就算你花了80%的时间,你也只能取得 20%的成效。

你应该首先将时间花于解决少数重要问题,你只花20%的时间解决这些重要的少数问题,就可取得80%的成效。

解决其余的20%的问题时,应注意方式方法,以免过多的投入带来微薄的收益。

下图为某航空公司对“航班延误”这一服务质量问题的原因分析,很明显地看出这也是可以用帕累托法则来抓主要原因的— 解决机械故障、加强维修维护(只占原因的20%)可以减少航班延误的80%

【转】帕累托与帕累托图 - 此情此景 - 此情此景

 

Pareto principle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term "Pareto principle" can also refer to Pareto efficiency.

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80-20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. Business management thinker Joseph M. Juran suggested the principle and named it after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who observed in 1906 that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population; he developed the principle by observing that 20% of the pea pods in his garden contained 80% of the peas. It is a common rule of thumb in business; e.g., "80% of your sales come from 20% of your clients." Mathematically, where something is shared among a sufficiently large set of participants, there must be a number k between 50 and 100 such that "k% is taken by (100 ? k)% of the participants". The number k may vary from 50 (in the case of equal distribution, i.e. 100% of the population have equal shares) to nearly 100 (when a tiny number of participants account for almost all of the resource). There is nothing special about the number 80% mathematically, but many real systems have k somewhere around this region of intermediate imbalance in distribution.

The Pareto principle is only tangentially related to Pareto efficiency, which was also introduced by the same economist. Pareto developed both concepts in the context of the distribution of income and wealth among the population.

In software

In computer science and engineering control theory such as for electromechanical energy converters, the Pareto principle can be applied to optimization efforts. For example, Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% of the most reported bugs, 80% of the errors and crashes would be eliminated.

In economics

The original observation was in connection with income and wealth. Pareto noticed that 80% of Italy's wealth was owned by 20% of the population.[4] He then carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied.

Because of the scale-invariant nature of the power law relationship, the relationship applies also to subsets of the income range. Even if we take the ten wealthiest individuals in the world, we see that the top three (Warren Buffett, Carlos Slim Helú, and Bill Gates) own as much as the next seven put together.

A chart that gave the inequality a very visible and comprehensible form, the so-called 'champagne glass' effect, was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed the distribution of global income to be very uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income.

Distribution of world GDP, 1989

【转】帕累托与帕累托图 - 此情此景 - 此情此景

 

The Pareto principle has also been used to attribute the widening economic inequality in the United States to 'skill-biased technical change' – i.e. income growth accrues to those with the education and skills required to take advantage of new technology and globalisation. However, Paul Krugman in The New York Times dismissed this "80-20 fallacy" as being cited "not because it's true, but because it's comforting." He asserts that the benefits of economic growth over the last 30 years have largely been concentrated in the top 1%, rather than the top 20%, though his assertion in no way negates the 80-20 principle.

参考资料:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle

2. http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_534ad65f01009r9o.html

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