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【转】漫谈组织过程资产  

2012-10-01 22:01:21|  分类: 信息系统项目管理 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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同事业环境和组织因素一样,在PMBOK的许多过程中,组织过程资产也是影响过程的一个重要依据,那什么是组织过程资产呢?

1.对“组织过程资产”通俗的解释

组织过程资产聚焦在“过程”两个字上,生活中我们经常说“长江水后浪推前浪,一代更比一代强”,其含义就是不断地改进与进步,就像CMMI所倡导的持续优化一样。那么如何才能做到持续优化呢?

虽然长江之长长达万里,长江之水浩浩荡荡。但浩瀚的长江也是源自冰川融化后的点点水滴。项目的活动虽然很多,但我们把这些活动组织成过程,这些过程的开展是可以借鉴其他项目相应过程、或其他单位的相应过程甚或本项目前期的同类过程的。

项目i=∑过程ijj=1……n),过程ij的改进ing

上述公式的意思是,项目的完成需开展一系列过程,这些活动甚至在项目进行期间都是可以逐步改进的,故用动名词的ing表示是现在进行时、是进行中的。

正像牛顿说过的那样,他之所以站得高看得远,是因为他站在了巨人的肩膀上。正在实施的项目i要想成功,也需站在前面n-1项目经验的基础上来进行,或者借鉴同行中其他单位的经验来实施。

依据行业的最好的经验,把这些过程规范,以工作流程与程序的形式发布。再把经过实践的过程记录下来的、积累起来就构成了知识。积累的知识、发布的工作流程与程序就构成了“组织过程资产”。

2. 知识与知识管理

知识来源于“组织过程资产”日常的积累,没有“组织过程资产”就谈不上组织的知识,因此知识管理也就成了无源之水、无本之木。

知识管理也没有什么神秘的,对知识的收集、整理、分类存储、传播利用等过程就构成了对知识的管理。

当然,工作中同事之间的日常交流也有助于知识的传播和应用。

3.“组织过程资产”与“事业环境和组织因素”的联系与区别

“事业环境和组织因素”是项目的外部因素,相对稳定。“组织过程资产”在不断地充实是动态的,“组织过程资产”可以来源于项目内部、组织内部甚至组织以外的单位。

 

附件1.对“组织过程资产”的学术定义(英语)

Organizational Process Assets

Organizational process assets include any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to influence the project’s success. These process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Updating and adding to the organizational process assets as necessary throughout the project are generally the responsibility of the project team members. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories:

.1 Processes and Procedures

The organization’s processes and procedures for conducting work include but are not limited to:

(1) Organizational standard processes such as standards, policies (e.g., safety and health policy, ethics policy, and project management policy), standard product and project life cycles, and quality policies and procedures (e.g., process audits, improvement targets, checklists, and standardized process definitions for use in the organization);

(2) Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal uation criteria, and performance measurement criteria;

(3) Templates (e.g., risk, work breakdown structure, project schedule network diagram, and contract templates);

(4) Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project;

(5) Organization communication requirements (e.g., specific communication technology available, allowed communication media, record retention policies, and security requirements);

(6) Project closure guidelines or requirements (e.g., final project audits, project uations, product validations, and acceptance criteria);

(7) Financial controls procedures (e.g., time reporting, required expenditure and disbursement reviews, accounting codes, and standard contract provisions);

(8) Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defect controls, issue and defect identification and resolution, and action item tracking;

(9) Change control procedures, including the steps by which official company standards, policies, plans, and procedures—or any project documents—will be modified, and how any changes will be approved and validated;

(10) Risk control procedures, including risk categories, probability definition and impact, and

(11) probability and impact matrix; and

(12) Procedures for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorizations.

.2 Corporate Knowledge Base

The organizational corporate knowledge base for storing and retrieving information includes but is not limited to:

(1) Process measurement databases used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products,

(2) Project files (e.g., scope, cost, schedule, and performance measurement baselines, project calendars, project schedule network diagrams, risk registers, planned response actions, and defined risk impact),

(3) Historical information and lessons learned knowledge bases (e.g., project records and documents, all project closure information and documentation, information about both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information, and information from the risk management effort),

(4) Issue and defect management databases containing issue and defect status, control information, issue and defect resolution, and action item results,

(5) Configuration management knowledge bases containing the versions and baselines of all official company standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents, and

(6) Financial databases containing information such as labor hours, incurred costs, budgets and any project cost overruns.

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